The wars between Spain and France inevitably took place in Catalonia. The presence and arbitrary nature of the Spanish troops stirred up the latent social and political conflict. 1640 marked the rupture between Catalonia and the Hispanic monarchy. The popular revolution, in which the peasants played the principal role, was followed by a political revolution, led by the institutions. These events are commemorated in the popular song Els Segadors (The Reapers), which is the source of Catalonia’s national anthem. The long war (1640-1659) came to an end with the loss of the counties of Rosselló and Cerdanya to the French crown.